Sports First Responder Level 3 (VTQ)

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Types of fracture

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Understanding Bone Fractures: Types and Characteristics


Bones, though sturdy, are susceptible to fractures under certain conditions. The severity and nature of a fracture depend on various factors such as the force of impact and the individual's bone strength.

Types of Fractures

1. Open or Compound Fracture

Description: Bone breaks through the skin, posing a risk of excessive bleeding and infection.

2. Transverse Fracture

Description: Bone breaks in a straight line across its width.

3. Stable Fracture

Description: Broken bone ends align properly with minimal displacement.

4. Complicated Fracture

Description: Injury extends beyond the bone, affecting surrounding tissues such as blood vessels and nerves.

5. Fracture-Dislocation

Description: Joint dislocation accompanied by a fracture in one of the joint's bones.

6. Greenstick Fracture

Description: Bone bends and breaks but remains partially connected.

7. Spiral Fracture

Description: Break spirals around the bone, commonly observed in long bones.

8. Compression Fracture

Description: Bone is crushed, resulting in a wider and flatter shape, often seen in the spine.

9. Stress Fracture (Hairline Fracture)

Description: Tiny cracks in the bone surface, challenging to detect via standard X-rays.

10. Impact Fracture

Description: Bone ends are driven together by force during impact.

11. Oblique Fracture

Description: Diagonal fracture across the bone, common in long bones.

12. Comminuted Fracture

Description: Bone shatters into three or more pieces with fragments at the break.

13. Avulsion Fracture

Description: Tendon or ligament pulls a fragment of bone away.

14. Segmental Fracture

Description: Bone fractures in two places, leaving a floating segment between the breaks, often observed in long bones.

Treatment Considerations

While understanding fracture types is beneficial, initial treatment typically follows similar protocols regardless of the specific fracture name.